What is Whiplash Associated Disorder?
Whiplash is a general termed injury that usually take place in a motor vehicle crash where the head is subject to sudden acceleration and deceleration, causing forceful bending in neck region. Since the movement is unlikely to occur in normal human range of motion, the muscles that control your neck movement do not have time to respond to the force, causing damage to the neck region.
The Quebec Task Force classifies Whiplash into five gradings, based on severity:
- Grade 0: No complaint about pain, tenderness, or stiffness of the neck. No physical signs.
- Grade I: Complaint of pain, tenderness, or stiffness of the neck without physical signs.
- Grade II: Complaint of pain, tenderness, or stiffness of the neck with musculoskeletal signs such as decrease range of motion and point tenderness.
- Grade III: Complaint of pain, tenderness, or stiffness of the neck with neurological signs such as sensory deficits.
- Grade IV: Complaint of pain, tenderness, or stiffness of the neck with signs of fracture and dislocation.
During a rear-end crush, the torso the carried forward, forcing the cervical spine, located in our neck, into an abnormal “S-shaped” position. Then, the head and neck were forced backwards since the torso was pulled forward during the collision. This may cause injuries to anterior cervical ligaments. The head and neck will swing forward as the driver stop the vehicle immediately.
Signs and symptoms
Whiplash Associated Disorder comprised range of symptoms including neck pain and stiffness, headache, memory loss, dizziness, dysphagia, and temporomandibular joint pain.
Patients with history of sudden or excessive neck extension, flexion, or rotation are in the risk of whiplash injury. During initial assessment, patient may report having reduced cervical spine range of motion, loss of muscle control in both cervical spine and shoulder gridle, loss or decrease in balance and deficits in neck-influenced eye movement control. For more serious cases, some patient may experience muscle degeneration in the cervical extensor muscles, lead to long lasting pain and disability.
In the first 96 hours after injured, mobilization such as active and passive range of motion exercises can result in reduced pain levels and improve function. Active rest, such as continue daily activity with brief rest period, can help blood flowing and muscle recover. Immobilization of long period of time can delay recovery time as muscle and ligament fibers are not aligned properly which can reduce strength and energy absorption capacity. Moreover, some patients will take NSAIDs to reduce inflammation, and neck rang of motion had reported improved after two weeks with medicine. Other physical treatments that practitioners will used are heat and cold packs, ultrasound therapy, and head traction. Theses can reduce pain and enhance recovery during the acute phase of whiplash injury.
During subacute phase, the goal for the patient is to return cervical muscle function as normal as possible. Light isometric and isotonic strengthening exercises that target the neck and scapular can help restore neck active range of motion. Light stretching also play a crucial role to improve tissue healing by increasing blood flow to the injured area. Vestibular and motor control exercises can improve neuro deficits and retraining muscle activation. Manual joint manipulation provided by chiropractors can reduce pain and initiate body’s natural healing processes. For ongoing management, continue with all the treatments stated above as well as increase the intensity of strengthen exercises.
Bannister, G., Amirfeyz, R., Kelley, S., & Gargan, M. (2009). Whiplash injury. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume, 91-B(7), 845–850. https://doi.org/10.1302/0301-620x.91b7.22639
Barnsley, L., Lord, S., & Bogduk, N. (1994). Whiplash injury. Pain, 58(3), 283–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959(94)90123-6
Elliott, J. M., Noteboom, J. T., Flynn, T. W., & Sterling, M. (2009). Characterization of Acute and Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 39(5), 312–323. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2009.2826
Pastakia, & Kumar, S. (2011). Acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Open Access Emergency Medicine, 29. https://doi.org/10.2147/oaem.s17853
Sterling, M. (2011). Whiplash-associated disorder: musculoskeletal pain and related clinical findings. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 19(4), 194–200. https://doi.org/10.1179/106698111×13129729551949
Tameem, A., Kapur, S., & Mutagi, H. (2014). Whiplash injury. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain, 14(4), 167–170. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkt052
Posted on by Andrea Cheung
What is sciatica?
Sciatica is the symptom of an underlying medical condition, not a medical diagnosis. However, this term has been incorrectly used to describe pain in back and leg symptoms by the general population. This is a term to describe a pain symptom that radiates from the middle or lower buttock down to the back and the side of the leg along the sciatic nerve, sometime it could radiate below the knees into the foot and toes. Sensory symptoms may also be reported by the patient. Usually, the pain only affects either left or right rather than both sides. Other thing to note is that Low back pain is not a consistent feature seen in sciatica but may also present in patient.
Symptoms and examination
Research has found that 90% of the cases are due to herniated disc that compress the nerve root from L4 to S1. Different levels of compression will present slightly different clinical features. With L4 compression, the pain is front and to the side of the thigh, which may sometimes mistake as a hip disease. Vis versa, L5 compression show pain at the back and the sides. Some other causes of sciatica might be lumbar canal or foraminal stenosis and tumors or cysts.
To examine whether a patient have sciatica, Straight Leg Raising Test have shown high sensitivity of 91%. When the patient is lying down and facing up, raising the whole leg straight can stretch the nerve root of the protruding disc. This will reproduce the pain and discomfort that the patient complains. If the leg is angled between 30 to 70 degrees with pain from buttock to below knee, disc compression of nerve root might be the cause of radiated pain.
Sometimes, sciatica might be mixed up with non-specific low back pain. Some major signs to justify sciatica are radiated pain towards foot or toes, numbness and paranesthesia.
Conservative non-surgical treatments are recommended for patient. Most common initial treatment will be pain control by medication prescribed by family doctor, which could provide relief to patient’s discomfort. The most common medication is naproxen, used to relieve pain for various conditions. Other conservative treatment such as acupuncture, steroid injections, etc. might be beneficial but studies has been inconsistent with pain relief of sciatica. However, rest and bed rest are not recommended to reduce pain as it might lead to acute low back pain although it might provide instant relief. Staying active likely to be more beneficial in improving sciatica and aid in faster recovery.
Another conservative treatment is spinal manipulation. It is widely used to provide a short-term benefit in relief pain symptoms in addition to exercise program targeting the low back and hip. Study had found that patient who has sciatica of at least six weeks, both conservative and disc surgery might improve patient’s pain and function. But we must aware of possible confounding in the study due to self reported data and patients’ preference for treatment may also affect treatment outcome.
If pain does not diminish in six to eight weeks, patient should meet a neurologist, neurosurgeon, or orthopedic surgeon to discuss other treatment methods such as surgery. It is always the last resource to treat sciatica when practitioner suspect a disc herniation or disc rupture. However, evidence has shown controversial outcomes with surgery. Studies has shown patient who did surgery has faster relief of pain compare to conservative treatment.
Exercise is always the best prevention protocols that a patient could do during their free time. Specific strengthening exercise that targets the core and the lower back can help protect the spine and maintain good posture. Patient can also stay active by jogging around the neighborhood or swimming and the pool.
Maintaining a good sitting posture is also important to prevent disc compression. Prevent bending the lower back which could reduce pressure on the discs and ligaments. Moreover, take a small break every 30 minutes of sitting can relief the pressure in the disc.
Harvard Health Publishing. (2020, September 24). 5 tips with coping sciatica. https://www.health.harvard.edu/pain/5-tips-for-coping-with-sciatica
Koes, B. W., van Tulder, M. W., & Peul, W. C. (2007). Diagnosis and treatment of sciatica. BMJ, 334(7607), 1313–1317. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39223.428495.be
Ropper, A. H., & Zafonte, R. D. (2015). Sciatica. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(13), 1240–1248. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmra1410151
Valat, J. P., Genevay, S., Marty, M., Rozenberg, S., & Koes, B. (2010). Sciatica. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, 24(2), 241–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2009.11.005
What is ultrasound?
Ultrasound has been wildly accepted as a therapeutic modality among the medical field by delivering noninvasive soundwaves causing the molecules in our body to vibrate. Depends on the frequency that practitioner prescribed, it has slightly different positive effects to the patient. However, the main goal for ultrasound therapy is to decrease plain, enhance tissue repair, and aid in muscle relaxation.
What are the theories behind it?
The theory behind ultrasound therapy is the soundwaves transmitted by the machine will cause vibrations in deep tissues, thus heat production. Heat can enhance blood flow and reduce pain symptoms.
Usually, frequency range from 0.8MHz to 3MHz are used during the therapy session. Higher frequency will be used in deep tissues treatment since ultrasound energy will be absorbed by superficial tissues.
How does the treatment looks like?
Transducer can be applied directly to patient’s skin with a layer of gel moving in a circular motion or under water. However, direct application is more common in clinical settings. For acute injury, application will be around 3-5 minutes. For chronic injury, the treatment will take 5-10 minutes. Excessive exposure to ultrasound will cause burning to the skin and damage to cell tissues.
Is it safe? What are some contraindications?
Ultrasound therapy is generally safe for most people. However, certain conditions may prohibit patients from receiving ultrasound therapy. People who are pregnant and in the presence of a pacemaker should avoid direct application over the affected area. Moreover, application will not be placed in areas with cancer, fractures, or directly over spinal cord, and epiphyseal growth center.
Ultrasound therapy is very useful to treat pain symptoms and enhance tissue healing. In addition, incorporating exercise therapy such as active rehabilitation can enhance one’s physical function and recover quicker than only with electrical therapy.
Time to step away from your desk; your work will be there when you get back. Stand with your feet hip width apart, clasp your hands behind you and bring your knuckles down to the floor. Open up the chest and take an inhale in and long exhale out. Bring your arms overhead to stretch triceps, it’s an old school stretch but a good one, hold for 30 seconds then switch to the other side. Last stretch, bring your hands to the top of your shoulders and gently twist to the right and then to the left. Should a registered massage therapy treatment for your back, shoulders, neck and arms sound good to you, you know where to find us at ruperthealth.com
Rupert Health has taken the 2-minute plank challenge. Our office assistant, George, was able to plank for exactly 2 minutes. Our registered massage therapist, Rebecca, clocked in at 4 minutes, 11 seconds. The plank pose is well known to be helpful in strengthening the core muscles. Other benefits include strengthening the shoulders and decreasing discomfort in your lower back muscles. You can start off your plank pose slowly and gradually build up strength by adding 15-30 seconds to your plank over time. Try out the 2-minute plank challenge, let us know how you do! Visit us at ruperthealth.com
Did you know that cat cow poses and Child’s pose can help stretch out your lower back? Stretching can help improve flexibility and lengthen the muscles that have been shortened over time. Strengthening the core muscles with plank poses and mini crunches along with glutes bridges can also help. Does a registered massage therapy treatment to relieve tension in the lower back sound good to you? We’re here to support you! Book in with us at ruperthealth.com
Let’s take a moment to pause, be still and assess where we are at with our mind. The emphasis may be on how the body feels but let’s not forget the connection between the body and mind. One way to meditate is to reflect on this question, “what are you most grateful for in your life at this moment?” Thinking about all the things that you are grateful for or what is going well in your life allows you to create a feeling of appreciation of life that can overflow into your relationships with others and into your journey through life. At Rupert Health we are grateful to all of our patients, we are thankful that during a pandemic we can still assist you with safety measures in place and we appreciate your trust and support in us. Whether it is registered massage therapy, chiropractic care or exercise rehabilitation, we are here to support you, always. Your appointment is ready for you at ruperthealth.com
Time to step away from your desk, your work will be there when you get back. Stand with your feet hip width apart, bring your hands together behind you, put one thumb on top of the other and bring your shoulders back and down. Take an inhale in and a long exhales out, relax your shoulders down. Twice more, big inhale in and long exhale out. Switch hands and use other thumb this time, bring your shoulders back and down. Again, with two deep inhales in and long exhales out. Feel free to add slow neck circles, nodding “yes” then “no”. Does a registered massage therapy treatment focusing on your middle of the back, shoulders, arms and neck with strengthening to retract your shoulders back sound good to you? Your appointment is ready for you at ruperthealth.com
A recent TED Talk discusses the “7 types of rest that every person needs.” The first type, physical rest can be active or passive. Passive rest is achieved by sleeping and napping while active rest obtained by ways including yoga, stretching and massage therapy. Yoga and stretching may improve one’s flexibility while massage therapy has been shown to improve one’s circulation, decrease blood pressure and reduce heart rate. Is getting more rest your self-care goal for the New Year? We’re here to support you, book your registered massage therapy appointment at ruperthealth.com
What is Bell’s Palsy ?
Bell’s palsy is a condition that includes rapid weakness in facial muscles. For most cases, the condition is temporary and improved over weeks. The weakness of facial muscle causes half of patient’s face appears to drop, one sided smile and inability to close the eye from that side.
Bell’s palsy is also known as acute peripheral facial palsy. The exact cause of weakness in facial muscle is still unknown, but it can occur at all ages. However, it is believed that the weakness is caused by following two. One could be the result of inflammation of the seventh cranial nerve, which carries electrical signals between the brain and facial muscles. The other one could be a reaction of viral infection.
Bell’s palsy is temporary for most cases. Usually within weeks, the muscle weakness will start to improve and completely recover in half of a year.
Rapid onset of mild weakness to total paralysis on one side of the face
Facial droop and difficulty to make facial expression, such as closing eyes or smiling
Pain around the jaw or in or behind the ears on the affected side
Increased sensitivity to sound on the affected side
Loss of taste
Changes in the amount of tears and saliva you produce
See A Doctor
See a doctor when you experience any type of paralysis because you may have a stroke. Although Bell’s palsy is not caused by a stroke, the symptoms are similar. Typically, most cases recover fully with or without treatment and surgery is rarely an option for Bell’s palsy. Go to visit your GP when you experience facial weakness or drooping to seek underlying causes and severity of the illness.
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2020, April 2). Bell’s palsy. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bells-palsy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370028.