Author: Ezra Yu
Many people confuse these two words or use them interchangeably, but there is a difference between a sprain and a strain.
To understand the differences you would need to also understand what a tendon and a ligament is. Ligaments are fibrous tissues that connect bones to bones whereas tendons are fibrous tissue that connect muscles to bones.
A sprain is a stretch or tear in a ligament and strains are stretches or tears in a muscle or tendon. The most comment injury is an ankle sprain, for example when you roll your ankle when you stepped on an uneven surface. Strains are most common in contact sports or overworking the muscle. Both are accompanied by swelling, redness and pain. It is important to ice the area and see a doctor if symptoms persist or worsen or you can’t bear weight.
Achilles tendinopathy is an injury to the Achilles tendon is some way. Different types of Achilles tendinopathy are:
- Achilles tendinitis: this is the acute inflammation of the Achilles tendon
- Achilles tendinosis: this is when no inflammatory cells are presen, collagen fibers in the Achilles tendon are scarred and disorganized. This is usually the cause when people have pain in their Achilles.
- Achilles tenosynovitis: inflammation of the Achilles tendon sheath. This causes fibrosis and scarring that restricts the motion of the tendon within the sheath, in other words, the tendon becomes stiff.
- Isometric exercises are when the muscle contracts without changing in length, like when you are flexing. An example of this type of exercise would be wall sits or planking.
- Isotonic exercises are when the muscle changes in length. there are 2 types of isotonic movements:
a. Concentric: this is when the muscle is shortening. Example, the upward motion when you do a bicep curl.
b. Eccentric: this is when the muscle is lengthening. Example, moving your arm back to straight from the bicep curl.
Isometric exercises are less stressful than isotonic exercises, so when individuals are recovering from an injury, they should start with isometric exercises and gradually move on the isotonic exercises.
There are 5 components of fitness:
Some may call it the 4 components of fitness as they combine muscular strength and muscular endurance.
To prevent yourself from getting injured, living a healthy lifestyle is a form or primary prevention. Warming up before you exercise, eating healthy, and exercising prevent injuries and illnesses.
2. Secondary prevention
If you do get injured, secondary prevention prevents further damaging the injury and trying to recover. This can be done by rehab, antibodies, bracing etc.
3. Tertiary Prevention
This level of prevention is for catastrophic injuries that people cannot recover from and return to their pre-injury condition. These people will work to to improve quality of life
Body mass index (BMI) is a tool we use to compare our weight to height by using a chart. It can be calculated by the equation BMI= (weight/height²), where weight is in kilograms and height is in meters. Many assume that this number can accurately depict a human of being overweight, underweight or at a health risk. BMI is a good indicator for the overall population but not for an individual. Someone could be categorized as obese in the BMI chart but that doesn’t mean this person is obese or unhealthy, they could just have a lot of muscle, for example a bodybuilder. For a BMI rating to accurately describe an individuals body composition it must be accompanied by the waist circumference.
|30.0 and above||Obese|
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is a chronic condition in the wrist area that can affect the arm and hands. An individual with CTS may experience numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected hand. CTS is caused by the compression of the median nerve due to inflammation which runs through “carpal tunnel”. The carpal tunnel consists of the carpal bones (wrist bones) which create the base of the “tunnel” and the transverse carpal ligament that creates the roof.
Compression of the median nerve can be caused by many different aspects, most commonly due to the overuse of the wrist in an overextended position. Many individuals spend most of their time typing on the computer either due to work or gaming, the position the wrist is in when typing is in this overextended position and are more at risk for CTS. It is important to take notice of your hand position and make sure there aren’t long periods of time in the overextended position. If you are in this position due typing, ergonomic keyboards or rests for your wrist can help with the positioning.
What is PET?
PET is the abbreviation for Polyethene Terephthalate, used to make plastic food containers, water bottles, “Sippy” bottles, baby toys, ovenware and eating utensils. The sources of exposure include plastic materials used in packaging, children toys and settled house dust.
The vulnerability of the developing brain
Children are one of the top vulnerable groups. Children are more likely to expose to PET because bottles and baby toys contain a significant amount of PET. Also, some biological determinants also lead children to be a vulnerable group. These reasons include:
- The blood-brain barrier isn’t fully formed; it is more permeable to toxins
- Rapidly growing cells are often more susceptible to toxins than slowly growing cells
- Brain growth occurs over a longer duration than other organs
- The fetus and child may lack enzymes to detoxify contaminants
- Young children often more heavily exposed to pollutants than older children and adults
Check out for the new technology for recycling PET
The government only pays doctors who paid fee-for-service (FFS) and who bill the government for a medically necessary physician or hospital service for that services. Therefore, patients are not involved in paying for that Fee-for-service. In general, FFS encourages doctors to move patients through quickly, which can decrease the quality of care, especially for sicker patients. For a better quality health care, some patients are willing to pay an out-of-pocket for FFS. So saying that patients decide to pay out-of-pocket for a service offered by an FFS doctor for better quality service, they choose the fully private clinics. The fully private clinics which provide private delivery and private payment (i.e., payment from patients, not government) are not allowed to bill the public plan unless they would take 100% of the payment from the government (i.e., not extra bill patients on top of the government payment) because extra billing is against the law under the universal public insurance plans in each province. However, this situation is confusing who is paying the doctor that FFS because that the public insurance covers the medically necessary physician or hospital service for the services is also ascribed to the Canada Health Act. Likewise, I believe what the most fully private clinics want is to take the government payment and bill the patients on top of that. The same thing also applies to doctors who are paid under capitation by the government, because there is no patient payment involved in capitation either. The capitation is the agreement that the government pays a set of an amount by enrolled patients assigned to them per period. The capitation does not just allow doctors to build better relationships with patients; capitation also frees doctors up to concentrate on the sicker patients because they get paid for all patients each month even if the patient doesn’t come in, it allows doctors to make money as crazy from the enrolled patients assigned to them.
By the way, I refer the doctors to GPs only…
In Canada Health Act(CHA) design, the system is predominantly public financed and privately delivered. The Canada Health Act combined and replaced the Hospital and Diagnostic Services Act and the Medical Services Act in 1984. The event in Saskatchewan (SK) such as the famous 23 day’s strike just prior to creating public insurance for physicians (which then was followed by the federal Medical Services Act). It mainly results from that physicians didn’t want to be working with the government, so they went on strike to remain autonomous. SK government thought it would be much easier to only have public payment and allow physicians to still function as private forms of delivery. By the time the Canada Health Act replaced the other two Acts, physicians were even more powerful and even less likely to want to change their status. The government wanted physicians’ willingness to accept Fee-for-service(FFS) remuneration method. The CHA allows physicians to choose their own medical practice locations and facilitators in exchange for the FFS remuneration method. Intuitively, the Canada Health Act is the inception of the current Medicare approach. The current Medicare approach in Canada leads physicians to have a chance to create the long waiting time.
Read more about the history of the Canadian health system: