Author: Ezra Yu

The change in healthcare system

Posted on April 25, 2018 by

The healthcare system was designed to prevent the infectious disease in response to rapid industrialization, urbanization, and crowding in the late 1800s. Infectious diseases became the major issue in healthcare system at that time, so the goal of the its system is to protect people from threats of infectious diseases to their lives.



However, infectious disease is not a major issue in a developed country such as Canada anymore.  Canada has solved the problems from housing conditions, inadequate sanitation, poor working conditions associated with disease outbreaks. With the improvement of health technologies and the increase of life expectancy, therefore, chronic health conditions have emerged as major issues other than acute conditions in the current society. Chronic diseases is the health conditions that usually persist a long time and result from the accumulation of unhealthy lifestyle. Beside, another issue we are facing are more likely to be the access to the health service and its coverage inadequacy.


About PET

Posted on April 10, 2018 by

What is PET?

PET is the abbreviation for Polyethene Terephthalate, used to make plastic food containers, water bottles, “Sippy” bottles, baby toys, ovenware and eating utensils. The sources of exposure include plastic materials used in packaging, children toys and settled house dust.


The vulnerability of the developing brain

Children are one of the top vulnerable groups. Children are more likely to expose to PET because bottles and baby toys contain a significant amount of PET. Also, some biological determinants also lead children to be a vulnerable group. These reasons include:

Check out for the new technology for recycling PET

Fee-for-service dispute

Posted on March 6, 2018 by

The government only pays doctors who paid fee-for-service (FFS) and who bill the government for a medically necessary physician or hospital service for that services. Therefore, patients are not involved in paying for that Fee-for-service. In general, FFS encourages doctors to move patients through quickly, which can decrease the quality of care, especially for sicker patients. For a better quality health care, some patients are willing to pay an out-of-pocket for FFS. So saying that patients decide to pay out-of-pocket for a service offered by an FFS doctor for better quality service, they choose the fully private clinics. The fully private clinics which provide private delivery and private payment (i.e., payment from patients, not government) are not allowed to bill the public plan unless they would take 100% of the payment from the government (i.e., not extra bill patients on top of the government payment) because extra billing is against the law under the universal public insurance plans in each province. However, this situation is confusing who is paying the doctor that FFS because that the public insurance covers the medically necessary physician or hospital service for the services is also ascribed to the Canada Health Act.  Likewise, I believe what the most fully private clinics want is to take the government payment and bill the patients on top of that. The same thing also applies to doctors who are paid under capitation by the government, because there is no patient payment involved in capitation either. The capitation is the agreement that the government pays a set of an amount by enrolled patients assigned to them per period. The capitation does not just allow doctors to build better relationships with patients; capitation also frees doctors up to concentrate on the sicker patients because they get paid for all patients each month even if the patient doesn’t come in, it allows doctors to make money as crazy from the enrolled patients assigned to them.

By the way, I refer the doctors to GPs only…





Canadian health care providers

Posted on February 7, 2018 by

In Canada Health Act(CHA) design,  the system is predominantly public financed and privately delivered. The Canada Health Act combined and replaced the Hospital and Diagnostic Services Act and the Medical Services Act in 1984.  The event in Saskatchewan (SK) such as the famous 23 day’s strike just prior to creating public insurance for physicians (which then was followed by the federal Medical Services Act). It mainly results from that physicians didn’t want to be working with the government, so they went on strike to remain autonomous. SK government thought it would be much easier to only have public payment and allow physicians to still function as private forms of delivery. By the time the Canada Health Act replaced the other two Acts, physicians were even more powerful and even less likely to want to change their status. The government wanted physicians’ willingness to accept Fee-for-service(FFS) remuneration method. The CHA allows physicians to choose their own medical practice locations and facilitators  in exchange for the FFS remuneration method. Intuitively, the Canada Health Act is the inception of the current Medicare approach. The current Medicare approach in Canada leads physicians to have a chance to create the long waiting time.



Read more about the history of the Canadian health system:

Smoking talk in adolescences

Posted on January 25, 2018 by

Adolescents’ attitude towards smoking is found to an important determinant of smoking intentions. Evidence supporting this point has largely been based on a research by Grogan et al. that explores how young people recognize smoking behavior and consider social role of smoking. There are 12 group interviews, with 47 high school children and 50 university undergraduates in Yorkshire, UK. The study examined how the participants ascribe their smoking behaviour. (Fry, Grogan, Gough, & Conner, 2008).
Some participants in the study demonstrated that smoking allows them to present the desirable appearance to others. For instance, some male participants claimed that smoking would show ‘cool’ and ‘macho’ appearance. Besides, some participants claimed that the brands of cigarette revealed their social identities. For example, ‘Marlborough Light’ may refer to the identity of ‘young’ (Fry, Grogan, Gough, & Conner, 2008).

Many smokers also used cigarettes as a ‘social tool.’ Some participants claimed that they smoked cigarettes for engaging themselves with others, meeting for the first time for example. Many participants claimed that young people manage to smoke together when they get alone in a fixed space. Smoking helps to avoid the ‘awkward’ quiet and ease the dull feeling during in a conversation (Fry, Grogan, Gough, & Conner, 2008).

Also, some participants described that smoking allows them to integrate into a specific social group. When the smoking become normative in the group, they are more likely to conform to the group and become the leaders of the groups later. Later, they will suggest others in the peer group to adapt to the collective behavior such as smoking. Similarly, adolescents would gain indicators of power and status by the smoking behavior in school. For instance, many participants described hands gesture as being ‘demonstrative,’ smoking seemed to be crucial to control others when in company with papers (Fry, Grogan, Gough, & Conner, 2008).



The findings fit in existing psychological approaches as the TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior) and SNT (Social Network Theory). The TPB explores the relationship between behavior and beliefs, attitudes, and intentions, and it assumes behavioral intention is the most important determinant of behavior. According to the research, the purpose of smoking is to capture others’ attentions and present their desirable appearance; the smoking serves as a visible indication of a desirable identity such ‘cool’ and ‘young’ identities. Those young people are more likely to agree with the benefit values of smoking. The social network theory exploring the influence of social relationships on health decision making and behavior. SNT suggests that the individuals’ bahaviours are reciprocity of relationships derived from social environments. When people want to centralize them in the environments, they smoke and engage others in smoking as default behaviour. The study shows cigarettes can function not only as a marker of collective identity, but also as a device employed to render social interactions more manageable as a communication pattern in the environment. Namely, they maintain the relationship by smoking together, both the in the group and meeting young people. The expectation among young people to smoke makes it difficult to avoid either becoming a smoker or being encouraged to be one. Also, the study argued that adolescents are more likely to mimic parental smoking behavior if they perceive parents as being more engaged, especially they are congruent with parent gender This also fits with the SNT. The theory suggests that they learn not only from their own experiences, but by observing the actions of others and the benefits of those actions.

Fry, G., Grogan, S., Gough, B., & Conner, M. (2008). Smoking in the lived world: how young people make sense of the social role cigarettes play in their lives. British Journal of Social Psychology, 763-780.